soy lecithing granules

Lecithin as a food to lower cholesterol is another natural strategy to improve your lipid (fat) profile without the use of toxic drugs, such as statins.

Lecithin is a compound found in soybeans, eggs,  sunflower, and other sources, which has the ability to help lower cholesterol levels.

Remember that when we talk about lowering cholesterol, we are really referring to optimizing your cholesterol levels. Cholesterol is often elevated by other things going on in the body. Things like insulin resistance, vitamin-d deficiency, and stress can all raise cholesterol levels.

When levels are high often this indicates that there are problems with the body that can be serious if they are not taken care of. High cholesterol levels are like the “canary in the coal mine” so to speak. If they are elevated we need to make sure we know why, and correct it.

Lecithin (also called phosphatidylcholine) is a “phospholipid compound” that supplies the b-vitamin choline, which is vital to the health of your brain and nervous system. This natural compound (lecithin) can help promote healthy cholesterol levels, but there are some things you need to know before you add it to your diet!

As a food to lower cholesterol, soy lecithin (from soybeans) may not be the best way to go, as soy contains phyto-estrogens and can cause a number of problems especially for men.  Sunflower lecithin on the other hand does not pose those problems and so would be a much better way to go, if you are using it to improve your cholesterol profile.

The following foods are sources of lecithin:

  • Animal sources:  eggs, meat, dairy
  • Vegan sources:   nuts, seeds, soy, sunflower

Eggs contain the highest amounts for any animal based food, and if you are a vegetarian, you would likely have to supplement with lecithin granules, preferably made from sunflower plants, instead of soybeans.

These lecithin granules have a pleasant nutty flavor and can be added to either liquid or solid food depending on your taste and preferences. They are one of the few things that are good for you that actually taste good!

This food does act as an emulsifier (mixes water and oil) and can be used in blending protein drinks or vegetable smoothies such as you might make in the Nutribullet! Dr. Peter D’Adamo has a recipe for something he calls the “Membrane Fluidizer Cocktail,” or “Membrosia Cocktail.”

The recipe goes something like this:

Use guava, grapefruit, or watermelon juice as a base
add 1/2 to 1 tablespoon of high-quality flaxseed oil
plus 1 tablespoon of good-quality lecithin granules
shake well until the consistency is uniform
and..enjoy!

Buying and storing lecithin

Make sure that the lecithin granules that you buy in the store are kept under refrigeration, because they oxidize (turn rancid) very easily when they are exposed to light or heat. Always check the expiration dates and pick the freshest bottle. When you get home store your lecithin in the refrigerator at all times!

Lecithin to lower cholesterol……does it work?

I have been unable to find any evidence that lecithin acts as an emulsifier and “flushes” the cholesterol out of your arteries as some people claim. It just doesn’t appear to work in this way. However choline is necessary for optimal health and promoting healthy cholesterol levels.

As a food to lower cholesterol, lecithin provides your body with a good source of choline and for this reason it likely has a positive effect on cholesterol levels. The benefits of lecithin from food sources and supplementation is really enhancing the function of your brain and nervous system.

Since the nervous system is involved in regulating cholesterol metabolism, any thing you do to make it function better will result in an improvement in your cholesterol profile.

Supplementary lecithin comes in either granules or gel caps, which are rather large and may be hard to swallow. When I use lecithin I prefer the granules, and I try to use sunflower lecithin rather than soy lecithin for the reasons I mentioned above.

Do not put lecithin into anything hot, as heat degrades lecithin (it’s poly unsaturated). Follow the dosage recommendations on the label. Since lecithin is a concentrated source of choline, you don’t need a lot.

Remember that lecithin, as a food to lower cholesterol does work but not for the reasons you have likely been told. It provides choline to your body which is essential to the health of your nervous system and thus your body’s ability to maintain healthy cholesterol levels.

medical references:

J Nutr. 1990 Jul;120(7):659-67.
Evidence that polyunsaturated lecithin induces a reduction in plasma cholesterol
level and favorable changes in lipoprotein composition in hypercholesterolemic
rats.
Jimenez MA1, Scarino ML, Vignolini F, Mengheri E.

J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 May;103(5):577-81.
Fat-free foods supplemented with soy stanol-lecithin powder reduce cholesterol
absorption and LDL cholesterol.
Spilburg CA1, Goldberg AC, McGill JB, Stenson WF, Racette SB, Bateman J,
McPherson TB, Ostlund RE Jr.

Atherosclerosis. 1998 Sep;140(1):147-53.
Soy lecithin reduces plasma lipoprotein cholesterol and early atherogenesis in
hypercholesterolemic monkeys and hamsters: beyond linoleate.
Wilson TA1, Meservey CM, Nicolosi RJ.

Natural hormone therapy for optimizing cholesterol has not yet gone mainstream in medicine, but it is going to be a popular new therapy in years to come. Bioidentical hormone therapy is a very safe and natural approach that will help people optimize cholesterol naturally and protect themselves from heart disease as they get older.

As you age, your hormonal systems begins to weaken, and that means that the amounts of critical hormones like, testosterone, DHEA, TSH, estrogen, and progesterone begin to decline. Since all of these hormones need to be in balance for your body to function properly, things begin to go wrong when one or more of these hormones decline, because then that delicate balance can no longer be maintained.

Medical science has slow to embrace natural hormone therapy for optimizing cholesterol , because this idea was considered radical due to misunderstanding by the scientific community. Recent studies have shown a strong correlation between declining hormones and higher cholesterol levels.

Clearly there is a link, and it appears as though restoring hormones to more youthful levels can normalize cholesterol quite effectively. This is logical because when you were younger and your hormone system was stronger and putting out higher levels of these critical hormones, your cholesterol levels were probably lower.

As you aged and your hormone system put out less and less of these hormones, your body was unable to maintain the healthier cholesterol profile your youth. It only makes sense that if you could go back to a more youthful hormone profile, you could significantly lower your risk of heart disease, and probably many other chronic diseases as well.

With that said, lets take a brief look at some research on natural hormone therapy for lowering cholesterol.

Why do declining hormones trigger increases in cholesterol levels?

The body uses cholesterol to make steroid hormones, and the theory is that when the levels of these hormones drop with age, the body tries to provide more cholesterol to the endocrine (hormonal) system to make hormones with.

To confirm this hypothesis, doctors Arnold Smith and Sergey Dzugan conducted a clinical research study on 41 patients with high cholesterol from 1997 to 2003. The results astounded them! In the study they replaced the hormones these patients were lacking, and all subjects experienced a significant drop in their blood cholesterol levels.

When using natural hormone therapy for optimizing cholesterol, it appeared that when normal hormone levels were restored, their bodies “down-regulated” (lowered output) of cholesterol from the liver. This suggests there is a mechanism whereby the body thinks the lower hormone levels are due to a lack of cholesterol, and so it increases it’s cholesterol production to give the body the “precursors” (necessary chemicals) to create these critical hormones.

Furthermore by lowering cholesterol “too much” we you could very well be preventing your body from synthesizing it’s critical hormones by limiting the cholesterol it needs to do it’s job. Nobody ever thinks about the fact that cholesterol is a vital and necessary substance, and that the only way you should go about trying to optimize it is by a natural process, not synthetic drugs.

Natural hormone therapy for lowering cholesterol is the correct approach because it takes into consideration how the body functions, and works with the body’s natural processes to lower cholesterol naturally.

The type of natural hormone therapy that I am speaking of is called bioidentical hormone therapy. It consists of a doctor doing blood and saliva testing on the patient to determine that baseline levels of all of the critical hormones, and then creating a prescription for the necessary hormones to be corrected. This is the principle behind natural hormone therapy.

This prescription is then processed by a compounding pharmacy using plant based hormones that are identical on the molecular level to what your own body produces. The dosages of these hormones the doctor prescribes are very precise and designed to get your critical hormone levels into the middle to high normal range.

This ensures that you only use just enough to create optimal health, and that any possible side effects are minimized or eliminated.

Natural hormone therapy for lowering cholesterol is one of the most effective and natural methods for lowering high cholesterol. It is backed by good scientific research and works WITH your body to safely lower cholesterol levels, rather than interfere with your body’s natural functions as statin drugs do.

References:

Med Hypotheses. 2002 Dec;59(6):751-6.
Hypercholesterolemia treatment: a new hypothesis or just an accident?
Dzugan SA, Arnold Smith R.
Source – North Central Mississippi Regional Cancer Center, Greenwood, Mississippi 38935-0549, USA. sdzugan@tecinfo.com

Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014 Mar 31;21(1):156-60.
Effects of growth hormone and testosterone therapy on aerobic and anaerobic fitness , body composition and lipoprotein profile in middle-aged men.
Zając A1, Wilk M2, Socha T3, Maszczyk A4, Chycki J2.

Raise good cholesterol with Coenzyme Q10, and lower inflammatory LDL particles at the same time.  Sure sounds like a win-win situation for heart health, and recent research strongly supports this important role for Co Q10!

coenzyme q10 moleculeLets take a look at this new nutritional weapon against heart disease, and the other health benefits of Coenzyme Q10.

What’s Coenzyme Q10?

Coenzyme Q10 or CoQ10 as it is also referred to, was discovered by Professor Fredrick L. Crane and his research team at the University of Wisconsin–Madison Enzyme Institute in 1957.

The reduced form of CoQ10 was called ubiquinone and was identified as a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger, and as we will see…it also has the ability to raise good cholesterol and lower inflammatory LDL.

This fat soluble antioxidant is found in the membrane structure of the mitochondria and is a key player in the electron transport chain which functions as an energy creating mechanism in your cells. The end product of these reactions is the creation of ATP, the primary source of energy for your body.

Because of it’s vital role in cellular energy production CoQ10 is found in highest amounts in the organs and tissue that have the highest energy demands.  Your body can synthesize CoQ10 but you also need to acquire it from your diet and possibly from supplementation as well.

How Do You Get Coenzyme Q10?

You can get CoQ10 in tablet form or as a soft-gel. The softgel form is superior because it’s easier for your body to absorb. The usual dose when used to benefit the heart is from 50 to 150 milligrams. The most effective form is the “reduced” form which is called “ubiquinol.”

Food sources of CoQ10 tend to be from animal sources, such as organ meats like liver, heart, as well as muscle. Again this is because those types of organs and tissues have a high demand for energy, and CoQ10 is a vital component of energy production in both animals and humans.

Here are the top foods sources:

  • Pork heart
  • Pork liver
  • Beef heart
  • Beef liver
  • Chicken liver
  • Chicken heart
  • Sardine
  • Mackerel

If you are a vegan there ARE  vegetable sources of Coenzyme Q10, the best are whole grains, peanuts, wheat germ, broccoli, and spinach. Keep in mind though that these sources are a lot lower in CoQ10 than animal proteins, so if you are trying to make up for a deficiency in Coenzyme Q10 you may need to use a supplement like ubiquinol if you are eating a vegan diet.

Health Benefits of Coenzyme Q10

There are many health benefits of Coenzyme Q10 from protecting yourself from heart disease, to blood sugar control and better energy.  Here is a short list of medical conditions where Coenzyme Q10 can be beneficial:

  • Malignant Melanoma
  • Diabetes
  • Endothelial Dysfunction
  • Heart Disease
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Senile Dementia
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)

CoQ10 is both an antioxidant and a bio-energetic nutrient, which means it both protects cells against oxidative stress (which robs the cells of energy) and also has a vital role in making the ATP molecule that supplies energy that cells need to maintain and repair themselves.

Coenzyme Q10 and Cholesterol

CoQ10 has beneficial effects on cholesterol profiles because of it’s role as a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger.  It’s been established that heart disease results from inflammation and free radical damage to the heart and the arteries through which blood flows.

By fighting oxidative stress and the free radicals it produces, CoQ10 can help prevent the damage to the endothelium and the process of atherosclerosis that causes coronary artery disease. The effect of CoQ10 on cholesterol is that it will raise good cholesterol (HDL) and lower LDL.

Even though we have learned recently that cholesterol does not CAUSE heart disease, it is a FACTOR in atherosclerosis that damages arteries. Coenzyme Q10 has been shown to alter the ratio of HDL to LDL that helps protect against coronary artery disease.

Cardiologists like Dr. Stephen Sinatra have been using Coenzyme Q10 to treat heart disease for many years, and now his colleagues are beginning to embrace this nutrient and add it to their treatment protocols, because of it’s ability to raise good cholesterol and lower inflammatory LDL particles.

Coenzyme Q10 and Statins

Statins, the drugs most often given to people to lower cholesterol have some very serious side effects. Some prominent cardiologists have come out against widespread statin use because the benefits of these drugs are far outweighed by the dangers to health that these drugs pose.

Statins deplete Coenzyme Q10, leaving the body vulnerable to a number of damaging processes that are rooted in oxidative stress and free radical damage. It is for this reason that a number of cardiologists recommend that in cases where statins are used the patient MUST be given Coenzyme Q10 in supplement form to protect against this statin caused deficiency.

The Case for Co Q10

Cardiologists are starting to use it, and in fact it has been used for many years in Japan to treat heart disease. Incidentally the Japanese are the longest lived population in the world, so it seems they know a thing or two about the health benefits of Coenzyme Q10.

The ability to raise good cholesterol with Coenzyme Q10 is the real value of this nutrient in helping to treat and prevent heart disease. Given the fact that heart disease is the number one killer of Americans, Coenzyme Q10 may prove to be one of the most effective strategies to keep your cardiovascular system healthy and extend your life.

What are optimal cholesterol numbers? Doesn’t this contradict the latest theory that cholesterol does NOT cause heart disease. The truth is that it is a “factor” but not the “cause”!

cholesterol numbersHow do we establish what the optimal levels for LDL and HDL are? These are important questions because the idea that cholesterol specifically causes heart disease is so deeply ingrained in the average person (and most doctors as well).

This is a difficult question to answer definitively because the issue is just so complex. I can tell you what some of the guidelines are, and of course they vary from one source to another. There is a generally accepted “optimal range” for cholesterol numbers.

Here are the guidelines issued by the American Heart Association.

 

Desirable Borderline Risk High Risk
Total Cholesterol 200 or less 200-239 240 and over
HDL 60 or higher 40-59 40 or less (men)
HDL 60 or higher 50-59 50 or less (women)
LDL less than 100 130-159 160-189
Triglycerides less than 150 150-199 200-499

 

 

 

 

 

Keep in mind that these guidelines somewhat reflect the influence of the drug industry and their attempts to increase their market for cholesterol lowering drugs called “statins.”

The recommended cholesterol numbers keep being adjusted downward, in my opinion in order to get doctors to prescribe more statin drugs which of course boots revenues of the drug industry.

In addition, there are other tests which are called “inflammatory markers,” that have a direct bearing on your risk for developing heart disease, and these tests should also be used to more accurately determine what your overall risk of cardiovascular disease is.

Once you know your level of risk based on the latest tests and analysis of particle types, then you can target your lifestyle strategies (exercise, diet, and stress reduction) to protect your heart health. This should always be the end point of ANY testing…a program to address whatever risks the tests have identified.

What really DOES Causes Heart Disease?

Here’s a simplified explanation. Heart disease is caused by inflammation. That is what actually damages the lining of your arteries. As Dr. Stephen Sinatra likes to say “Cholesterol is found at the scene of the crime, but it’s not the perpetrator!”

When arteries are damaged, your body uses LDL to try and repair the damage, kind of like patching holes in a wall. Obviously the LDL did not cause the damage, but gets attached to the artery walls and accumulates eventually clogging the artery. This is called an “occlusion.”

When the LDL particles that stick to your arteries become oxidized and thus inflammatory, the process of arteriosclerosis begins. This is where the small highly inflammatory LDL particles called HP(a) come in.

So again, the cholesterol did not initiate the process of heart disease, but it IS an important factor in the progression of heart disease. With that out of the way, lets move on…

Focus on Particle Size and Type, Not Just Cholesterol Numbers

The real focus should be on the type and particle size NOT just the levels. According to Dr. Stephen Sinatra, an integrative cardiologist who is board certified by the American College of Cardiology, if your LDL particles are large and fluffy then you really don’t need to worry so much about your LDL levels.

However if the LDL’s are small dense highly inflammatory particles, then your risk is greatly elevated. There is a test that measures for these small inflammatory particles (HP(a)), called the Lipoprotein Particle Profile (LPP) test.

The LPP test measures the level of HP(a) which is a small dense LDL particle which is very toxic and inflammatory to the blood, potentially causing your blood to become “hyper-coagulated” which is another word for sticky and more likely to clot.

The takeaway message is that if you have this dangerous inflammatory LDL particle, then obviously the higher your total cholesterol numbers, the more of this dangerous particle you have, and the greater your risk. Simply stated, high levels matter when you have dangerous LDL particles in your blood.

So in closing, optimal cholesterol numbers are totally dependent on particle size and type. If your cholesterol particles are the small dense inflammatory type, then you need to make a greater effort to lower your levels.

If your LDL type is large and non-inflammatory, then your total levels are not something to be overly concerned about. You should take the time to consult with an integrative cardiologist to determine how best to manage your heart health.

What is Cholesterol

What is cholesterol? Among other things it is a very much misunderstood substance that people have been unnecessarily frightened of. They have been told repeatedly by “experts and authorities” that it’s a dangerous substance, that must be lowered in your body before it kills you!

what is cholesterolIn this information website, we will try and demystify this perfectly natural substance and disprove once and for all that it causes heart disease! We will also provide good solid information and easy to implement strategies that will help you prevent heart disease instead of just “lowering cholesterol.”

Let’s start with a discussion of  what is cholesterol…

Cholesterol is a fat (also called a lipid) that is made in the liver. It’s part of a class of compounds called steroids which are made in the bodies of all animals. This substance is vital to your body, is transported through the blood, and is contained in the external layers of all cells.

The origin of the word cholesterol originally comes from the word chole which means bile in Greek. The other part of the word derives from the Greek word stereos meaning stiff or solid. This waxy fatty substance is necessary for your cells to maintain their structural integrity.

This is why it is absolutely vital for life, and in fact your body actually manufactures this substance for use in all of your cells. Statin drugs interfere with the production of cholesterol which is why they cause so many side effects.

What is cholesterol used for?

There are many functions for this amazing substance:

  • It is used in creating the myelin that coats and protects your nerves somewhat like the insulation on a wire.
  • It is used for synthesizing bile acids which your body needs for digestion.
  • Your body uses it to make sex hormones (androgens and estrogens) and also in the synthesis of the adrenal hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone.
  • It’s used in to metabolize vitamins A, D, E, and K (the fat soluble vitamins)
  • It is used in the reactions that synthesize vitamin D from sunlight.
  • It’s essential for maintaining the outer structural layer of your cells and also for keeping the cell membranes permeable so that certain molecules can pass through the membrane and enter the cell.

In order to travel through your bloodstream, it needs to have a protein coating and thus becomes something called a “lipoprotein.” They are called lipoprotiens because they contain both protein and fat.

The four main types of these lipoproteins are:

  1. LDL or low density lipoproteins often called bad and are associated with an increased risk of heart disease when they are high
  2. Chylomicrons (triglycerides) consisting of approximately 90%  fat
  3. HDL or high density lipoproteins (often referred to as the “good cholesterol”) HDL is thought to “protect” the arteries from damage by carrying away LDL particles so they can’t build up on your artery walls.
  4. VLDL or very low-density lipoproteins (often referred to as a very bad form of lipoproteins) These particles are considered to have the highest risk of contributing to heart disease because they are small dense highly inflammatory particles that can damage artery walls.

The role of triglycerides…

Triglycerides are fat molecules that come from the fat in the foods we eat, or can be synthesized from carbohydrates that are not burned for energy. These triglycerides are stored in your body and released to be burned for energy when your body does not get enough food to meet it’s energy needs. The truth is that it is triglycerides that really increase the risk of heart disease!
Hypertriglyceridemia is a term used to refer to high levels of triglyceries in the blood and researchers now know that this is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. High glycemic carbohydrates can raise levels of triglycerides and greatly increase risk of heart disease.

While this area is still somewhat controversial, it’s clear that triglycerides have a major role in heart disease and they are increased by sugar consumption. It makes sense for this reason to keep your intake of sugar and high glycemic carbohydrates low to avoid setting yourself up for cardiovascular disease.

A Complex Question…

Doctors have been taught to calculate your risk of heart disease using ratios of these lipoprotein particles. They have also been given guidelines for what the “safe” and “dangerous” levels are.  Now these guidelines have been called into question, as new information has changed what the medical community “thought” they knew!

Even though the question of  what is cholesterol is a complex one, you will see that terms like good  and bad cholesterol are misleading and inaccurate. All of these forms of this vital substance have their necessary roles. Instead we should be looking at the effects of chronic inflammation and how we can neutralize it, because it is really inflammation that causes heart disease!

References:

Curr Cardiol Rep. 2011 Dec;13(6):544-52. doi: 10.1007/s11886-011-0220-3.
The role of triglycerides in atherosclerosis. Talayero BG, Sacks FM.
Source: Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. btalayer@hsph.harvard.edu

Eggs and Cholesterol – A Pervasive Nutritional Myth!

Many people have heard dire warnings about eggs and cholesterol, but is there any truth to this widely held belief at all? The answer is NO! Eggs have not been shown to significantly raise LDL (low density lipoproteins) levels when eaten in moderation. In fact eggs are actually be considered beneficial  when cooked and eaten properly and in moderate amounts.

eggs and cholesterol

Please note that the term LDL refers to the form considered by cardiologists to be “bad,”  however we will show in other posts that the idea of good and bad cholesterol is a misapplication of the science!.

Lipoproteins are another term for cholesterol. Thus HDL cholesterol is high density lipoproteins, and LDL is used  to refer to “low density lipoprotein.” The type that is believed by scientists to actually cause problems is called vldl cholesterol, (very low density lipoproteins). However even in this case the truth is more complicated than this and we will explain this as we go along.

The Facts about Eggs…

The fact is that egg yolks also contain lecithin which is a phosopholipid compound that actually lowers the amount your body absorbs. Thus the cholesterol in an egg does not have the same effect in your body, that it does when it comes from other sources.

Eggs contain about 185 milligrams of cholesterol (for a large egg), but they are also high in vitamin-d, choline (a b-vitamin) and lecithin. Interestingly, the saturated fat content in eggs is low. Research studies have shown that foods that you eat, does not have necessarily cause high cholesterol levels in your body, and in some cases may actually lower it!

It appears that the eggs and cholesterol myth began when the concern over lipoprotein levels being a factor in heart disease emerged. Researchers jumped to conclusions and people were warned that eggs greatly increased the risk of heart disease, based on this assumption, (based on poorly done research).

Eggs are Essential Sources of Choline

One negative result of this eggs and cholesterol hysteria was that people stopped eating eggs, or at least significantly cut down on egg consumption. The b-vitamin choline is essential to good health, especially of the brain.

The most abundant source of this vitamin in most people’s diets came from eggs. As a result the population as a whole became deficient in choline, leading to other serious health problems like Alzheimer’s Disease, and even increased rates of heart disease!

Choline is vital to the healthy function of the brain and nervous system, which in turn has a huge impact on heart health. Thus by limiting egg consumption and producing deficiency of choline in the diet, people were actually making the situation with regard to heart disease even worse!

What The Research Says…

Some people who have a genetic tendency toward higher levels called (familial hypercholesterolemia) may be affected by the amount they consume in their foods, but the mechanism is not totally clear. In fact the famous Framingham Study of heart disease shows that people with the highest hdl cholesterol levels actually lived the longest!

Recent research conducted on eggs and cholesterol at the University of Surrey by Dr. Bruce Griffin found that two eggs per day consumed by healthy people for a 12 week period actually lowered their LDL levels on average! It was concluded that eggs will not significantly raise cholesterol numbers in a healthy person. In this instance eggs actually lowered their levels!

In face the research subjects in the experimental group actually lost weight as well. This may seem surprising, but in light of the fact that egg yolks contains beneficial vitamins and high quality protein, it supplies your body with vital nutrients, without which you can’t achieve optimal health.

Recent research has also suggested that eggs may act in a way to reduce high blood pressure and that they contain antioxidants that help prevent heart disease. While this evidence is not yet conclusive, it suggests that eggs, far from being dangerous to our health are actually beneficial in preventing both cancer and heart disease!

Nutritional myths about eggs and cholesterol still persist in medicine and are accepted by the public at large, but gradually the word is getting out that eggs are not a bad food at all, in fact you need the beneficial nutrients in eggs for good health, including heart health!

References:

Chamila Nimalaratne, Daise Lopes-Lutz, Andreas Schieber, Jianping Wu. Free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk show antioxidant properties. Food Chemistry, 2011; 129 (1): 155 DOI:
Majumder et al. Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides from Simulated in Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion of Cooked Eggs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2009; 57 (2): 471 DOI: